Saturday, May 23, 2020

The United States Declaration Of Independence - 836 Words

The United States Declaration of Independence in 1776 expressed that all men are created equal, whose unalienable rights include life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness (The United States National Archives Records Administration, n.d.). Life is the sequence of physical and mental experiences that make up the existence of an individual (Merriam-Webster, 2015). That is to say, the barometer of the wellness and health of a person should include both his biological and psychological/behavioral facets. In fact, in 1947 not only did the World Health Organization (WHO) took cognizance of these two essential components of health, but added another dimension- social well-being (Fair, 2011, p. 3). Not to mention that the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework is founded on the biopsychosocial model of disability rather than impairment (World Health Organization, 2002, p. 13). Also worth mentioning is President Franklin Roosevelt s proclamation of the right to health as one of the four essential liberties; he asserted that the right to health is the right to adequate medical care and the opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health (Carmalt Zaidi, 2004, p. 1). Furthermore, one of the principles enshrined in the Constitution of the United States, as indicated in the preamble, is the promotion of the general welfare of all Americans. It has been years since the founding fathers have envisioned this declaration and principle, butShow MoreRelatedThe Declaration Of Independence By The United States1106 Words   |  5 PagesThe setting of the Declaration of Independence was the United States. It was declared on July 4, 1776. After the Boston tea party rebellion the United states wanted their independence. One will describe why the declaration of independence was written. What lead to the cause for writing such a document. The leaders who wrote the declaration. And what the colony was going through for it to lead to the circu mstances. One will look at how England was treating the colonies that made them want to be theirRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The United States895 Words   |  4 Pageswere originally drafted. The U.S. Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and Thomas Jefferson’s Letter to the Danbury Baptist Church are three documents that are still hold relevance in today’s societal discussions. These three documents hold truths, principals and ideologies that were and are crucial to the continuation and the development of the United States. The very ideas and tribulations that led to the development of the United States are expressed loudly in these three documents. WhileRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The United States897 Words   |  4 Pages The Declaration of Independence stated the United States should be established as a country, free from British control, the U.S. Constitution is a set of rules for that nation to follow, and Mark Twai n’s As Regards Patriotism examines how these two documents affect the mindset of this country. Groupthink, not a word use in 1900, when Twain penned his essay, but it is a good analogy of what he was discussing. Psychology Today says, â€Å"Groupthink occurs when a group values harmony and coherenceRead MoreThe United States Of The Declaration Of Independence1486 Words   |  6 Pagesthat took the lead on creating one of the first official American documents was the founding fathers. These men signed the Declaration of Independence from England in 1776. They were a group of very strong and independent men who were interested in the future of the country and its ability to stand on its own. Some of the most important men who signed the Declaration of Independence include: George Washington, John Adams, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and JohnRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence : The United States1552 Words   |  7 Pageshappin ess. This however was not always the case for the United States. It was once ruled by King George III, and the American people were under the control of the British Parliament. It is what the founding fathers of our country fought for, that made it possible for the United States to be what our country is today. This was only possible by their bravery and the creation of the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was a document that was written by Thomas Jefferson, whoRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The United States1814 Words   |  8 PagesThe Declaration of Independence is the most imperative and most seasoned report in the United State History. The Declaration was drafted and marked to report our Declaration Of Independence from Great Britain, by saying, â€Å" The United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free andRead MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The United States1844 Words   |  8 Pages The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Grea t Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer under British rule. Instead they formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. A committeeRead MoreThe United States And The Declaration Of Independence Essay1150 Words   |  5 PagesTo continue Jefferson shows these same qualities of independence in the declaration of independence. He wanted the United States to have the freedom to govern itself. According to the author, â€Å"I set out on this ground which I suppose to be self-evident, that the earth belongs in usufruct to the living... We seem not to perceive that, by the law of nature, one generation is to another as one independent nation is to another†¦ The earth belongs always to the living generations,† (Jefferson 5). WhatRead MoreThe United States Declaration Of Independence1802 Words   |  8 PagesVirginia Conve ntion instructs its Continental Congress delegation to propose a resolution of independence from Great Britain, paving the way for the United States Declaration of Independence. Also, in 1793 Diego Marà ­n Aguilera flies a glider for about 360 meters, at a height of 5–6 meters, during one of the first attempted manned flights. And in 1817 the first private mental health hospital in the United States, the Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason (now Friends Hospital)Read MoreThe Declaration Of Independence And The United States Of America Essay1431 Words   |  6 PagesThe Declaration of Independence allowed the colonies of the United States of America their own governmental structure. After the war with Britain, the United States sought out a structure giving the citizens of America their own rights. These rights include: freedom of speech, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, freedom of religion, the ability to make their own decisions, own form of government and taxation and more. The declaration was made by the merchant class of America, the founding

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Science of Management Throughout History Essay

Management Thought Management - is one of the areas of modern economics, aimed at the creation, planning and implementation of development plan for businesses, organizations, and firms in order to maximize the potential profit of the company, creating a sustainable enterprise management system (Drucker, 1993). Management helps companies to achieve a certain goal step-by-step. In order to achieve targets companies demand managers. â€Å"A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals, monitoring their work, and taking corrective action when necessary† (Reh). The origins of management roots back to the time of ancient Egypt, where they started build the pyramids. Obviously, they needed to have†¦show more content†¦Labor productivity grows, increasing both gross and net product. According to Smith, the nations economy can grow only with the growth of its capital, and its capital can grow only to the extent that it gradually makes its income from savings. In other words, capital limits economy. Thus, the â€Å"capital - the true essence of economic life. As soon as it grows or diminishes, or opens it work all the way, or impose its veto on any improvement. According to Smith, government should not regulate or try to involve into businesses and trades, they have to support the free market. One of the other figures, who developed the science of management is Frederick W. Taylor. Frederick Taylor (1856 – 1915) called the father of scientific management and the ancestor of the entire system of scientific organization of production, and more than a hundred years, the whole modern theory and practice in the field of scientific labor organization uses â€Å"Taylor â€Å"heritage. And it is no coincidence that the theory was based management engineer, thoroughly knowledgeable technology industrial enterprise and their own experience to know all the features of the relationship between workers and managers. â€Å"The goal of scientific management was to use systematic study to find the one best way of doing each task† (Williams, p. 24) ThereShow MoreRelatedWhy Is Majoring A Business? Essay764 Words   |  4 Pagesdegree do I need to earn what I actually want? What am I good at? For sure the decision is complicated. Throughout this essay, we have compiled the three most popular fields of study chosen by college students. The first most popular field is business. Within the field of business, you have endless opportunities when selecting a particular major. You can choose between finance, marketing, management, entrepreneurship, and much more. The next most popular fields are the health professions and relatedRead MoreManagement Is The Human Process Of Creative Thinking987 Words   |  4 PagesIn the past, there has been a disagreement as what management is claimed to be. According to (Whatishumanresource.com, (No date)) Management is a distinct process which involves a series interconnected activities and is followed by achieving the best possible performance. If particular actions for example – planning, leading, and motivating the resources of a business are used sufficiently by an intelligent group then the targets aimed for will be achieved (Rawlins, 1995). Oxford English dictionaryRead MoreHow The Flexpath Program Aligns With Your Career Goals891 Words   |  4 Pagesfundamentals of man agement, leadership, business law, supply chain management, marketing and sales, human resource management, organizational communication, accounting, and finance. Then there are specialized courses such as virtual team collaboration, leadership in organizations, organizational structure, leaning, and performance, operations management for competitive advantage, strategic planning and implementation, global business relationships, ethics and enterprise, change management, and a culminatingRead More A Brief Analysis of The Steel Industry Essay example1472 Words   |  6 Pageshad on the transportation industry. Finally, it will discuss systematic management practices of this time and how they gave birth to the scientific approach that is still in use today. Steel The steel industry was needed for almost everything. Alfred D Chandler Jr. could see the potential market value early on. According to Wren: Chandler traced the history of various firms and delineated four phases in the history of the large U.S. enterprise: 1. The initial expansion and accumulationRead MoreManagement Theory And Management Theories1272 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of developing the management theories is to bring out better ways to manage people. According to Aguinaldo Powell (2002), management theory evolves con-stantly with the continuous stream of new ideas that come from the attempts to transform theory into practice, and vice versa. As essential personnel identify promising methods that assist in managing responsibilities, it will lead to management theories progressing. This paper will il-lustrate how management theories have emerged overRead MoreHow The Field Of Neuroscience Developed As Well As Gain894 Words   |  4 PagesThe History of Neuroscience In this section, you will get an overview of how the field of neuroscience developed as well as gain some insight into why it is important in your daily life. How neuroscience developed Today most of us are aware that there is a close connection between how our brains function and how we behave in daily life. Our brain, which has developed throughout life based on individual and shared experiences, impacts everything from our personalities to our senses to which professionalRead MoreThe United States National Institute Of Nursing Research1333 Words   |  6 Pageswas established to promote wellness and to prevent diseases, to improve the overall quality of life across populations, to eliminate disparities, and finally to set the directions for end-of-life, palliative research. This essay will explore the history of the NINR in terms of its location, dates of operation, overall purpose, mission, and Strategic Goals. The essay will then outline the NINR s current initiatives, describe the organization s priorities in terms of funding. Training opportunitiesRead MoreStudying Management Unit : Formative Assignment1631 Words   |  7 Pages 2ND NOVEMBER 2015 Candidate number: 23639 Tutor: Peter Nicholls STUDYING MANAGEMENT UNIT – FORMATIVE ASSIGNMENT Discuss whether knowing the history of management is useful for studying management today THE VALUE OF HISTORY OF MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION A deep knowledge of the history of management, together with a reasonable amount of critical thinking, is perceived as a driver that enables prospective students and managers in enhancing their inventive aptitude and creative capabilities (BridgmanRead MoreEvolution of Personnel Towards Hrm1110 Words   |  5 PagesPart (a) HRM Assignment 1 Throughout the history of the evolution of personnel towards HRM there have been many landmarks which fall into a number of categories. For example, I will discuss the following headings; the welfare tradition, scientific management, the multinational influence, HRM education and U.S perspective in the 1980’s. I will discuss in each of the headings and the ways in which they have influenced HRM throughout the years. Welfare tradition – the welfare tradition was developedRead MoreCulinary Arts Is The Act Of Preparing Food1636 Words   |  7 Pagestopic that needs to be divided into a small bit for people to understand. Therefore culinary arts is anything related to food which entails preparation of food, planning of the menu, the styling of food or edible art designing, nutrition and diet, management of hotel and restaurant, and even photography of food (Labensky, Hause, Martel, Malley, Bevan, Sicoli, 2014: Panlasang Pinoy., 2017). These are among the broad topics related to culinary arts and preparation of food is considered the most linked

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Psychology Paper; How Stress Affects the Human Mind Free Essays

My topic of choice is stress. My first article informs you about the effects stress can have on your body and what you can do to avoid stress to keep your body healthy. (http://www. We will write a custom essay sample on Psychology Paper; How Stress Affects the Human Mind or any similar topic only for you Order Now webmd. com/mental-health/effects-of-stress-on-your-body). The Effects of Stress on Your Body Stress is the body’s reaction to any change that requires an adjustment or response. The body reacts to these changes with physical, mental, and emotional responses. Stress is a normal part of life that happens to you and many things that you do yourself put stress on your body. You can experience stress from your environment, your body, and your thoughts. How Does Stress Affect Health? The human body is designed to experience stress and react to it. Stress can be positive, keeping us alert and ready to avoid danger. Stress becomes negative when a person faces continuous challenges without relief or relaxation between challenges. As a result, the person becomes overworked and stress-related tension builds. Stress that continues without relief can lead to a condition called distress — a negative stress reaction.  Read also Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  (PTSD). Distress can lead to physical symptoms including headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pain, and problems sleeping. Research suggests that stress also can bring on or worsen certain symptoms or diseases. Stress also becomes harmful when people use alcohol, tobacco, or drugs to try and relieve their stress. Unfortunately, instead of relieving the stress and returning the body to a relaxed state, these substances tend to keep the body in a stressed state and cause more problems. Consider the following: * Forty-three percent of all adults suffer  adverse health effects from stress. Seventy-five percent to 90% of all doctor’s office visits are for stress-related ailments and complaints. * Stress can play a part in problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, heart problems, diabetes, skin conditions, asthma, arthritis, depression, and anxiety. * The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) declared stress a hazard of the workplace. Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. * The lifetime prevalence of an emotional disorder is more than 50%, often due to chronic, untreated stress reactions. My second article below, talks about the myths of stress. What we should believe and the other factors of stress that are simply not true or unrelated to stress. (http://www. apa. org/helpcenter/stress-myths. aspx). Six myths surround stress. Dispelling them enables us to understand our problems and then take action against them. Let’s look at these myths. Myth 1:   Stress is the same for everybody. Completely wrong. Stress is different for each of us. What is stressful for one person may or may not be stressful for another; each of us responds to stress in an entirely different way. Myth 2:   Stress is always bad for you. According to this view, zero stress makes us happy and healthy. Wrong. Stress is to the human condition what tension is to the violin string: too little and the music is dull and raspy; too much and the music is shrill or the string snaps. Stress can be the kiss of death or the spice of life. The issue, really, is how to manage it. Managed stress makes us productive and happy; mismanaged stress hurts and even kills us. Myth 3:   Stress is everywhere, so you can’t do anything about it. Not so. You can plan your life so that stress does not overwhelm you. Effective planning involves setting priorities and working on simple problems first, solving them, and then going on to more complex difficulties. When stress is mismanaged, it’s difficult to prioritize. All your problems seem to be equal and stress seems to be everywhere. Myth 4:   The most popular techniques for reducing stress are the best ones. Again, not so. No universally effective stress reduction techniques exist. We are all different, our lives are different, our situations are different, and our reactions are different. Only a comprehensive program tailored to the individual works. Myth 5:   No symptoms, no stress. Absence of symptoms does not mean the absence of stress. In fact, camouflaging symptoms with medication may deprive you of the signals you need for reducing the strain on your physiological and psychological systems. Myth 6:   Only major symptoms of stress require attention. This myth assumes that the â€Å"minor† symptoms, such as headaches or stomach acid, may be safely ignored. Minor symptoms of stress are the early warnings that your life is getting out of hand and that you need to do a better job of managing stress. My articles presented facts on stress I was unaware of. Such as how a little stress can be good for you, because it keeps you alert and well managed. An individual with too much stress could have quite the opposite effect and become severely depressed and even eventually, lead to death. Another thing I came across is that everybody can have stress; however, everybody deals with stress in different ways. The stress I have most likely isn’t the same kind of stress that my parents have, and that means we all cope with stress with different techniques. The stress that I most often experience has to do with school, work and dealing with my addict mother. From what I’ve read, school and work are some of the most frequent stressors that a person my age has to deal with. However, living with a severe drug addict has increased my stress in work and school exponentially. My articles also explain the negative and harmful effects that stress can have on a person’s body. If someone is too overwhelmed with stress they then start experiencing a condition known as distress. Distress is followed by headaches, upset stomach, elevated blood pressure, chest pains and problems sleeping. When I’m stressed and have a lot on my mind, I find that I have difficulty sleeping. The lack of sleep then results in more stress and it becomes a vicious cycle. Also, seeing how people become stressed from being overworked, some people turn to substances to compensate and relieve stress. However, research has shown that substances can worsen the effects of stress tremendously. Substances such as alcohol keep the body in a stressed state and eventually cause more problems. Any form of stress that you may be experiencing should be brought to attention. Covering up stress with medication and not treating the source could be damaging in the long run. The minor symptoms of stress are signs that your life is getting somewhat out of hand, you need to make necessary adjustments for your mental and physical well-being in order to avoid further stress. This is what is recommended anyways, but this is said so much easier than done. It’s insane how many people do not take these precautions and let their lives slip through their fingers. Some Forty three percent of adults suffer health effects from stress and seventy five to ninety percent of doctor office visits are stress related, and if stress is camouflaged or ignored it can lead to an emotion disorder. Fifty percent of emotional disorders are the result of untreated stress. As I said earlier, everybody experiences stress differently, therefore, not everybody will have the same exact regiment to treat stress as others have. Stress not only affects you, but also affects the people at home and in your work environment. Stress can cause even the closest of relationships to diminish. Stress is also present in your work atmosphere. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration declared stress a hazard of the workplace. Stress costs American industry more than $300 billion annually. Reading several articles pertaining to stress and my knowledge from class has presented me with different outlooks on how to avoid stress and more importantly how to handle stress in every task. By doing so, I can prevent myself from harming my body, mentally or physically. It’s imperative for people to realize that stress is an inevitable factor of life and that there are ways to cope with it. How to cite Psychology Paper; How Stress Affects the Human Mind, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Communication Plan for Toyota Sold Worldwide

Question: Describe about the Communication Plan for Toyota for Sold Worldwide. Answer: Introduction Toyota is a Japanese automotive company that is known for its economic yet luxuries cars that are sold worldwide. The manufacturer has currently come up with a new product which is an innovative car and the below report is an analysis of the key stakeholders that need to be involved in the communication plan and how the communication plan goes about. The report identifies each of the relevant stakeholders for Toyota and the efficient communication channel for the sales of Innovative car. The advantages and disadvantages of each of this channels is analysed and how the communication would be evaluated is presented. The stakeholders analysis is done with the help of the financial records of the company, the website of the company and the several news articles that are available in regard to the company. All information is presented in tabular columns to make report easier to understand. Stakeholders Toyota has a strong love towards each and every of its stakeholders. They believe that only through sustainable development with the various stakeholders Toyota can actually grow. In the very Corporate Social Responsibility Policy itself Toyota has ensured to inculcate the necessity to maintain an open and fair communication with the stakeholders making sure the impact of their actions are thought through and understood in regard to the stakeholders interests as well. On performing a detailed analysis of the companys website, an analysis of the companys financials and the organizational structure of Toyota there are five key stakeholders that Toyota has great regard for. Customers No company forms without the customers. Customers are the revenue generators of any business and hence the companies works with the motto of producing goods that add value to the customer (Prahalad, 2013). In case of the Toyota Innovative car, the production has taken place to add a significant utility worth to the customer market. The car has been introduced for the customer and is expected to meet several demands of the customer and add an essence of luxury (Harrison, 2015). Pre and posts sales activities are also necessary part of the Toyotas customer services. Since Toyota produces customer centric automobiles, customers are one of the key stakeholders in the company. In marketing and pricing criteria, the culture of the customer group is given high consideration (Gounaris, 2015). The marketing strategies in the western countries are different from that in the eastern countries making sure that they reach customers with regard to their background. Employees Employees are the core of the company and they represent the company. Employee satisfaction is of prime importance at Toyota. Employees make or break the system and ensuring employee growth has a major effect on how well the functions within the company are carried out (Bersin, 2013). With the innovative car production at Toyota, several employees have been given the opportunity to brainstorm for ideas that are creativity and producing a car that is attractive to the customer. Also, at Toyota, economic cars are given more importance and hence producing a new car at a competitive price has been successfully carried on by the employees. Toyota has a strict belief in the necessity of bilateral communication and makes effort to increase a sense of unity with all levels of employees. Labor management is done through mutual trust and responsibility (Suri, 2015). Business Partners The global presence of Toyota involves a collaboration with several business partners all around the world. These business partners are the several supplier and dealers with whom the company shares its policies and principles (stebro, 2015). In case of suppliers, Toyota believes that there is a need to form a firm bond with the vendors through a mutual trust, mutual benefit policy to make sure that the customer is served properly. To make this possible Toyota has an open door policy for the purpose of fair competition. Also, the company encourages local suppliers to have ensure CSR. The company also has close relations with its sales networks (Lazzarotti, 2014). These are the business partners that actually bring business and are in direct contact with the customer. Hence, it is crucial that the various parties involved know the values of Toyota and share similar vision to grow mutually. Toyota contributes in marketing and sales activities and run with the principle of Customers First, Dealers Second, Manufactures Third emphasizing on the importance of dealers in a business. In a large scope there is almost no direct contact of the core manufacturing unit with the customers. It is the pre-sales, sales and post-sales team that actually bring value to the company (Kusari, 2013). It is hence crucial to have a clear involvement with both the suppliers and sales team to ensure that the innovative car is built with first class quality and is sold in the best possible way. To enhance the relations with its business partners Toyota has taken up several initiatives such as Motor Shows, racing activities, customized car shows etc. Shareholders As of 31st March 2016, Toyota has about 682,802 shareholders with Japan Trustee Services Bank, Ltd. and Toyota Industries Corporation as the major shareholders. Every company has a responsibility towards their shareholders and are obliged to share financial information in regard to all the functions that happen in a company (Kieschnick, 2013). Introducing an innovative car is risky given the standard models that have been presented by Toyota. Such activities need the consent of the major shareholders as they have a say in deciding if the introduction of a new car would be beneficial to the revenue and reputation of the company. Also, the cost involved in research and development are relatively high and hence the shareholders often show concerns when new products are being introduced (Hope, 2013). The shareholders at Toyota also share their philosophy of quality first and hence it is crucial to convince these first set of people to make sure the investments are made to produce the innovative car. Post production, the sales plan, marketing ways and how the car would make a difference and penetrate into the current market is keenly discussed and presented and signed off by the shareholders. Global Society and Local Community The companies today not only strive for profits but also make sure they make a difference to the communities they are involved with (Navi, 2012). In the production of innovative car, local suppliers where given equal opportunities with a fair competition policy. The company has taken up initiatives to increase smart mobility society, afforestation, biotechnology and robotics. The company has nine rice production corporations and promotion of onsite kaizen. The company has also made investments in rehabilitation aid robots and human support robots. This is a part of their corporate social responsibility. The need to ensure that the local communities that are effected by the business of Toyota are required to be safeguarded. Additional Toyota also makes significant contribution to local communities around the world. Communication Scope The introduction of the new innovative car would need to be communicated to a large group of stakeholders. The communication scope would involve all the five major stakeholders, however the extent of communication would vary. Stakeholder Management The below is an analysis of the stakeholders expectations and ways the innovative car would fulfill each of these expectations Stakeholder Need How need is fulfilled? Customers Economic and comfortable automobile that has new and attractive features Innovative car is different from the standard cars produced at Toyota and at the same time is economic and new (Goetsch, 2014) Employees Apart from monetary gain, employees look for a chance to learn and work on new technologies (Chen, 2013). The employees where given a chance to brainstorm and come up with significant changes to the existing car models. Business Partners Suppliers look for a chance to do business with Toyota and sales team look for an innovative, easy to sell and economic products to sell. Suppliers are given fair competition policies and local suppliers are given chance to be a part of Toyota. Sales team have a new product to endorse that is both innovative and economic and has several new features (Jamieson, 2012). Shareholders CSR and revenue The prime concern of shareholders is making money. Having a financial strong product will not only please the maximum shareholders but will also improve the investments of smaller shareholders (Brandt, 2016). Also, every shareholder again have a responsibility towards the community and generating revenue will ensure enough funds for investing in CSR initiatives Local Communities Need for environmentally concerned products that do not have a negative impact on the communities and ecology Innovative car is an initiative of the eco car sector of the company that is fuel efficient and economic. The companys sales would also increase the investment the company would make in CSR activities. Objectives The main objective of communication plan is to make sure that every stakeholder except the local communities is kept in constant update of the innovative cars release. Given that the car in new and there are no other cars in the genre it is crucial that its features are highlighted and given appreciation. Convincing the shareholders post production of the profits, the customers of the economic and luxury benefits the care provides, the sales team as to why the car has to be bought and how it needs to be sold and the employee of what needs to be done in case of further productions phases are the key aspects. Significant importance is also given to the need to ensure that the sales team is highly aware of the features of the car and efficient marketing is done throughout. Local communities are not included as a part of the communication plan as key focus is on the sales of the car. In case someone comes up with an issue, the fuel efficiency and the other ecological features of the car would be highlighted. Commutation channels Below are the regularly used communication channels with various stakeholders that have proven to be effective over the years. The frequency of the same is given below as well. Stakeholders Communication Method Frequency Customers Website, Advertisements, Customer service centers, product service centers, social media, direct sales and valuable customers gatherings The new car would be introduced in the presence of elite customers. The marketing for the same is communicated through several methods mentioned from 2 months before launch till a 3 months post launch. Post first three months communication plan will be modified based on sales Employees Labor management Conferences and employee satisfaction surveys Constant communication is done with employees all around the production cycle to make sure that they are kept updated with all the company plans. Also, all concerns are heard and addressed. Post first phase of production, employee survey is taken to analyze what else can be done to help the employee satisfaction (Gailloux, 2012) Business Partners Conferences There would be one meeting with suppliers post production to thank them for their cooperation. There would be one meeting one month prior to model release with dealers to provide them insights of the new car, its features and how it is one the most innovative cars. From release the sales teams would be provided sessions as and when required Shareholders Briefing on business initiative, one on one meetings and shareholder meeting They would be kept in loop at all major decision points. Post release the shareholders would be given weekly updates on sales numbers for a month and then monthly reports will be sent. Global Society No communication There is no communication done with local communities during sales phase of the innovative cars Communication Metrics Communication Method Advantage Disadvantage Metrics Marketing methods with customers Mass communication Customers do not feel special or individually valued All the mass communication channels are rated based on the number of views, shares and likes they get (Bruns, 2014). This would help in understanding how many customers where actually approached (Peters, 2013) Elite Customer Group Customers feel valued Fewer Customers are covered Since elite customers are those who bring huge business making they feel valued. Post gathering questionnaire are distributed as a mode of feedback and their opinions are considered to analyze how well the communication was done. Conferences with stakeholder Group interaction Chances of debating The agreement and non-agreement is the only way to analyze the communication with the stakeholders in conferences One on one meetings Face to face interactions Varied opinions Post meeting the shareholders are given a survey to understand if the communication was efficient (Yanggratoke, 2016) Sales Conference All the dealers are briefed on the product at a time - After each conference each dealer and sales representative is requested to write a test kind of a survey. Scores of the test will show how efficient the conference has been Conclusion Identifying and analyzing the key stakeholders of a company is key to develop an effective communication plan especially when launching a new product. Making sure that the communication is efficient and effective and channelizing information through appropriate media is required to ensure that everyone involved has a clear idea of what is happening. The communication of Toyotas innovative car is designed keeping these aspects in mind as it is of high importance that all the communication media is thoroughly analyzed, listing its advantages and disadvantages and finding ways to understand how well the communication has been made. References stebro, T., Serrano, C. J. (2015). Business partners: Complementary assets, financing, and invention commercialization. Journal of Economics Management Strategy, 24(2), 228-252. Bersin, J. (2013). Employee Retention Now a Big Issue: Why the Tide has Turned. Retrieved February, 20, 2014. Suri, E. A. (2015). The Dominant Factors of Employee Value Proposition: Generation Y. Advanced Science Letters, 21(4), 910-912. Brandt, F., Georgiou, K. (2016). Shareholders vs Stakeholders Capitalism. Bruns, A., Stieglitz, S. (2014). Metrics for understanding communication on Twitter. Twitter and society, 89, 69-82. Chen, X., Song, H. Y., Han, Y. (2013, January). Leadership Behavior, Employee Needs and Working Outcomes: An Exploratory Study. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2013, No. 1, p. 12813). Academy of Management. Gailloux, M. A., Samson, K., Shah, G. M. (2012). U.S. Patent No. 8,135,388. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Goetsch, D. L., Davis, S. B. (2014). Quality management for organizational excellence. pearson. Gounaris, S. (2015). Customer Experience. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management. Harrison, M. P., Beatty, S. E., Reynolds, K. E., Noble, S. M. (2015). Why Customers Stay in Relationships: The Lock-in Factors. In Proceedings of the 2008 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 94-94). Springer International Publishing. Hope, O. K. (2013). Large shareholders and accounting research. China Journal of Accounting Research, 6(1), 3-20. Jamieson, D., Eklund, S., Meekin, B. (2012). Strategic Business Partner Role: Definition, Knowledge, Skills Operating Tensions. The Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management, 3, 112-128. Kieschnick, R., Laplante, M., Moussawi, R. (2013). Working capital management and shareholders wealth. Review of Finance, 17(5), 1827-1852. Kim, A., Housman, M. G. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 20,150,186,817. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Kusari, S., Hoeffler, S., Iacobucci, D. (2013). Trusting and monitoring business partners throughout the relationship life cycle. Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 20(3), 119-138. Lazzarotti, V., Manzini, R., Nosella, A., Pellegrini, L. (2014). Open innovation with scientific and business partners: the mediating role of internal relational social capital in foresting innovation ambidexterity. CINet 15th, Operating innovation, Innovating operation. Navi, S. T. (2012). Corporate social responsibility. Pedersen, E. R. G. (Ed.). (2015). Corporate social responsibility. Sage. Peters, K., Chen, Y., Kaplan, A. M., Ognibeni, B., Pauwels, K. (2013). Social media metricsA framework and guidelines for managing social media. Journal of interactive marketing, 27(4), 281-298. Prahalad, C. K., Ramaswamy, V. (2013). The future of competition: Co-creating unique value with customers. Harvard Business Press. Yanggratoke, R., Ahmed, J., Ardelius, J., Flinta, C., Johnsson, A., Gillblad, D., Stadler, R. (2016). A service-agnostic method for predicting service metrics in real-time.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review Essay Example

On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review Paper Essay on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Lets cut ones way in the all around! Perhaps these words can put the theme of the work, because they frequently uttered by one of the main characters and reflects the attitude of the heroes to the world around them. The plot is not intricate. A couple of guys Sal Paradise (on behalf of the narrator) and Dean Moriarty throughout the book romp from one end of America to the other and back again. Throughout all their journeys surround incredible adventures and mishaps, which reflect the inner world of the characters and their attitude to life. The work is certainly worth considering. Reading it, however, enter into the role of the main characters. Rather to my main character was Dean Moriarty and it was his actions, speech, emotions caused some trepidation in his heart. There is a desire to drop everything and go in any direction, nablyadaya everything around, talking to everyone, forget about any framework in which we are driving social norms and morals, breathing life! Move, move, move! We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The truth is after some time come to mind thoughts about the reverse side of the issue. Such a life is meaningless in terms of the benefit. Benefits that can bring into our world. And in the end, this life can get bored. The story shows the life of the characters in the context of several years. Dean manages to marry, divorce, re-marriage, to have children. One thing remains unchanged. Feeling in his soul a certain loneliness, loneliness that despite the everyday, every minute chat with people, no one can fill And he again embarks on a road

Friday, March 6, 2020

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), had beginnings based in both scientific pursuit and the military. Lets start from the first days and see how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) started. After the Second World War, the Defense Department launched serious research push into the fields of rocketry and upper atmosphere sciences to ensure American leadership in technology. As part of this push, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a plan to orbit a scientific satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) for the period from July 1 1957 to December 31 1958, a cooperative effort to collect scientific data about the Earth. Quickly, the Soviet Union jumped in, announcing plans to orbit its own satellites. The Naval Research Laboratorys Vanguard project was selected on September 9 1955 to support the IGY effort, but while it enjoyed exceptional publicity throughout the second half of 1955, and all of 1956, the technological requirements in the program were too big and funding levels too small to ensure success. The launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957 pushed the U.S. satellite program in crisis mode. Playing technological catch-up, the United States launched its first Earth satellite on January 31, 1958, when Explorer 1 documented the existence of radiation zones encircling the Earth. Next page NASA History - The Formation of NASA Page 1, 2, 3 One law for the investigation of the problems of flight within and outside the Earths atmosphere, and for other purposes. With this simple preamble, Congress and the President of the United States created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958, a direct result of the Sputnik crisis. The fledgling National Aeronautics and Space Administration body absorbed the former National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics intact: its 8000 employees, an annual budget of $ 100 million, three major research labs - Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory - and two small test facilities. Soon after, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) joined other organizations, including the space science group from the Naval Research Laboratory in Maryland, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology for the Army, and Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alab ama, the laboratory where Wernher von Brauns team of engineers were engaged in the development of large rockets. As it grew, the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), established in other centers, and today has ten located around the country. Early in its history, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was already seeking to put a human in space. Once again, the Soviet Union the U.S. beat to the punch when Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space on April 12, 1961. However, the gap was closing as on May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space, when he rode his Mercury capsule on a 15-minute suborbital mission. Project Mercury was the first high-profile program of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which had as its goal placing humans in space. The following year, on February 20, John H. Glenn Jr. became the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth. Following in the footsteps of Project Mercury, Gemini continued NASAs human spaceflight program to and expanded its capabilities with spacecraft built for two astronauts. Geminis 10 flights also provided NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists and engineers with more data on weightlessness,perfected reentry and splashdown procedures, and demonstrated rendezvous and docking in space. One of the highlights of the program took place during the Gemini 4 on June 3, 1965, when Edward H. White, Jr. became the first U.S. astronaut to perform a spacewalk. Next page NASA History - NASA Crowning Achievement Page 1, 2, 3 The crowning achievement of NASAs early years was Project Apollo. When President John F. Kennedy announced I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth, NASA was committed to putting a man on the moon. The Apollo moon project was a massive effort that required significant expenditures, costing $25.4 billion, 11 years, and 3 lives to accomplish. On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong made his now famous remarks, Thats one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind as he stepped onto the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 mission. After taking soil samples, photographs, and doing other tasks on the moon, Armstrong and Aldrin rendezvoused with their colleague Michael Collins in lunar orbit for a safe journey back to Earth. There were five more successful lunar landing of Apollo missions, but only a failed one rivaled the first for excitement. All totaled, 12 astronauts walked on the Moon during the Apollo years.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

An e-Business analysis of BarnesandNoble.com Research Paper

An e-Business analysis of BarnesandNoble.com - Research Paper Example Barnes & Noble history can be traced to its acquisition in the early 1960s by Leonard Riggio; this is the period when he began his bookselling profession while in New York University. By 1970, the company was succeeding and it included 6 other college bookstores; it acquired trade name Barnes & Noble and the flagship bookstore in Manhattan. Between 1970s and 1980s the company made several significant moves. In 1974, it became the first bookseller in U.S. to put an advert in television; the â€Å"Of Course! Of Course!† advert. In 1975, Barnes & Noble made a bold move and became the first bookseller by offering discount books in the United States; it offered New York Times bestsellers at a discount of 40 percent off the publishers’ list prices (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company has been offering book services for close to 25 years, it began with the mail order catalogue in 1970. The company tested selling the books online in the late 1980s through Trintex, an early generation venue. Trintex was a joint venture between IBM & Sears. The company sold its books on the CompuServe in the mid-1990s and later it opened a full-fledged a book superstore on the America Online in 1997. Barnes & Noble.com website (www.barnesandnoble.com) was launched in May 1997. Presently, the company’s website is the largest store and it enables the customers to order a book regardless of the time and place. The consumers have access to millions of out-of-print and used book titles, music DVDs and CDs through Barnes & Noble.com (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company’s publishing has been expanded through the purchases of SparkNotes.com and Sterling Publishing in 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2009, the company acquired Fictionwise, a company leading in eBook in the marketplace. The company has its headquarters in New Jersey; it was founded in 2000 by Scott and Steve Pendergrast. In July 2009, Barnes and Noble introduced the world’s

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Global Corporate Governance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Global Corporate Governance - Essay Example e legislature develops a platform that regulates the company’s decisions and interactions with other partners to safeguard all stakeholders’ interests. The executive arm of government also formulates policies and enforces all legal provisions while the judiciary interprets laws and policies to compliance. Implementation of established laws also stipulates liabilities and remedies in cases of infringed rights (Daft and Marcic 60-63). The company particularly experienced government intervention in its case against Samsung in which Samsung was accused of infringing Apple’s intellectual property right. In the case, government intervention protected the company’s interest in its innovation and therefore promoted its revenues from the protected products. The case also identifies the effects of government regulations in controlling the company’s actions towards its stakeholders because any illegal act is punishable by law (Svensson 1). Competition is another external environmental factor that affects the company and emanates from organizations that supplies products with similar utility. It affects Apple’s market control as well as profit levels because of relatively reduced sales volumes and scarcity of resources (Daft and Marcic 64). Competition from other companies such as Samsung that produces and sells products with similar technological applications offers consumers alternatives that lead to shared market. Consequently, apple has to develop strategies for acquiring and retaining customers, whether through price reduction, improved quality, or product diversification. The stiff competition has also made the company a victim of counterfeit products as its competitors have been accused and convicted of unlawfully copping its technology, an issue that grants the competitors a market advantage against Apple (Svensson 1). Human resource management is a sensitive issue that drives an organization’s productivity, and Apple has been keen on its personnel

Monday, January 27, 2020

An Analysis Of Romantic Opera Drama Essay

An Analysis Of Romantic Opera Drama Essay The Romantic Era was a period in music in which there was much change during the 1850s to the 1920s in the theory and compositional practice of music. The composers wrote their pieces with more artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity than the artists of the classical era and this caused the melody to become the more dominant feature in the songs composed. Some popular composers that originated out of this era are: Robert Schumann, Franz Schubert, Frà ©dà ©ric Chopin, and Richard Wagner. For inspiration, many Romantic composers turned to visual arts, poetry, drama and literature, and to nature itself. These influences led composers to express emotion in their music. These changes in the sound of the music came in the form of the increased use of dissonance and the extended use of chromatics. Although Romantic era music contained classical era roots, the instruments used in the Romantic era were changing and brass and woodwind instruments were being improved in the quality of sound, as well as in how they were played. Some Romantic era composers used their compositions to express nationalism by the way of incorporating elements unique to their native cultures, such as folk songs, dances, and legendary histories. Mikhail Glinka is an example of a composer who wrote operas specifically on Russian subjects. Many great operas derived from the Romantic era including Gaetano Donizettis Lucia di Lammermoor, as well as Gioachino Rossinis The Barber of Seville. Opera was very dominant in Italy where the operas differed from the operas of the classical era because the form of the pieces were being changed by having the tenors given the heroic lead in operas and by giving the chorus a more important lead than before. Gioachino Rossini was the first composer to initiate an opera in the Romantic era, which started in the early 19th century. His first piece, La Cambiale di Matrimonio, included scenes where the characters expressed emotion through the lyrics of their songs. This was a comedic opera that was the first of its kind which was written in 1810. Many great composers followed Rossini including Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Giuseppe Verdi. These composers continued to change the way operas were being written as well as preformed. These changes were evident in Verdis first success ful opera, Nabucco, which the general public found interesting because of its great choruses. Verdi also continued to express nationalism in his operas, Va, pensiero, which was interpreted as giving meaning to the struggle for Italian independence and Verdi was expressing his hope to unify Italy. By the end of the Romantic era, opera had become a combination of many art forms including the theatre, dance and orchestra oriented music. Although opera was predominant in Italy, many other European composers were contributing to the changes in the music of their generation, including German composer Richard Wagner. Richard Wagner was born on May 22, 1813 in Leipzig, Germany where he had a difficult childhood. Wagners father died of typhus six months after Richards birth which led his mother Johanna Rosine Wagner, to begin living with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer, who had been a friend of Richards father up until his death. Richards mother then proceeded to marry Ludwig Geyer and they moved the family to Dresden. It is here where Wagner started his musical learning. Richard first took interest in his step fathers love for the theatre and performance arts and he played an angel in a play at a local theatre. When he was seven, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzels school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher. A year later his stepfather died which led the ei ght year old Wagner to attend the Kreuz Grammar School in Dresden. Although Richard was largely a self taught musician he persuaded his family to allow him to take music lessons. From 1828-1831 Wagner completed his first lessons in composition with Christian Gottlieb Mà ¼ller and by the time he was fifteen he had already written his first play. Wagners focus on drama is one of the reasons his operas really shined as being different than operas of the classical era. He enrolled at the University of Leipzig in 1831 where Wagner further took composition lessons from Christian Theodor Weinlig who refused to let Richard pay for the lessons he was giving him. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagners talents that he arranged for one of Wagners piano works to be published. Wagner continued his studies in music and he completed his first opera when he was twenty years old called Die Feen. This opera would not be produced until half a century later when it was premiered in Munich shortly after his death in 1883. Around the time he wrote his first opera, Wagner married the actress Minna Planer, who he moved to Riga with where he became the music director of the local opera house. His relationship with his wife was a troubled one in that she left him once for another man, but came back to him before they moved to Paris due to fleeing from tremendous debt. In 1862 he returned to Germany, where he moved in with Ludwig II. After the success of his opera, Tristan und Isolde, he decided to do more traveling around Europe where he created such classics as Siegfried and Gà ¶tterdà ¤mmerung. Towards the end of his life Wagner decided to settle in Italy where wrote his final opera, Parsifal. Parsifal was first preformed at the Bayreuth festival which occurred at the opera house in which Wagner himself funded. After the second Bayreuth festival the Wagners decided to take a trip to Venice in the winter of 1883. It is here where Richard Wagner passed away due to a heart attack. In his long musical career Wagner created thirteen operas including the most notable Rienzi, Der fliegende Hollà ¤nde, Tristan und Isolde, and Der Ring des Nibelungen. It was clear that Wagner was changing the way operas were being preformed, and he continued to push the music further into the Romantic era by viewing operas as total art works.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Boston Beer HBS Case

Disadvantages of an PIP The company will face underwriting costs associated with the PIP. A failed PIP could be costly both in financial assets and in firm reputation. Complying with regulatory reporting standards will create additional costs that are not present in a private company. Incorporating the company may have negative tax implications for the current owners. Current shareholders who do not exit during the PIP will face severe dilution. Management control will decrease because of fiduciary duties to shareholders. This could conflict with the company's product quality processes and result in a shift toward a short-term earnings focus.Conclusion Although their contract brewing model reduces expected capital expenditures, their labor and marketing intensive sales strategy will require substantial spending to expand into new markets. To meet projected growth, external funds will be needed. Raising these funds entirely from debt would create an unacceptable level of debt for a st ill growing company; thus equity funding is the preferred option. The company has reached a maturity point where equity can more easily and cheaply raised in public capital markets rather than through venture or private equity firms.Additionally, publicity room the PIP will help with brand recognition in new markets. Given the recent success of competitor Ipso and Boston Beer's profit margin and growth potential, the risk of a failed PIP is minimal, and most current shareholders intend to sell shares in the PIP reducing dilution concerns. Boston Beer should proceed with the PIP. Question 3-5 (Exhibit 3)– – 1995 Pro Formal Net Sales: All pro formal sales rely upon the assumption that net sales as of September 30, 1 995 represent 75% of expected year-end revenue.Because the firm's PIP will most likely have a more positive impact on Q sales than his estimate projects, if anything, the prices generated by our models are underestimated, not overestimated. Cost of Debt: BBC explains in its prospectus intent to extinguish outstanding debt carrying interest rates upwards of 1 1 . 5%. Based upon the firm's low target leverage of 5%, low degree of operating leverage, and favorable credit history and financial outlook, the model assumes a cost of debt in line with AAA corporate debt at 7. 2%. This estimate seems reasonable and sensitivity analysis shows a 1% decrease in the forecasted share price requires at least a 2. % increase in the cost of debt. Risk Free Rate: The six-month and 30-year treasury rates given imply a fairly flat yield curve. Due to the relatively short forecast period and the short-term risk characteristics of this industry, the model uses the six- month rate as the risk free rate in calculating the cost of equity. 995 Net Working Capital Requirement: In order to calculate the change in NC over 1 996, the model assumes sass's year-end NC is composed of the existing September 30, 1 995 balance plus Of fourth quarter net sales due to the f irm's rationalization strategy. CAP: Historical analysis shows an average 3. 3% capital intensity ratio. Based on a likely decrease in efficiency due to rapid expansion, the model forecasts a 3% capital intensity ratio–this includes restricted investments (Exhibit 1).Depreciation: Depreciation was not included in the calculation of free cash flows because net CAP was used. 1995 Value of Debt: Boston Beer's debt is private, so the market value will be very similar to, if not exactly the same as, its book value. – –Question The underwriting prospectus for the PIP suggests a share price of $12. 50 per hare, which is the starting point for analyzing the different scenarios. In order to determine the scenario that was most realistic, we attempted to rule out the ones that were not and a summary of our analysis is found in Exhibit 4. 1) First we analyzed the information asymmetry in the PIP. The offering presents information about almost 1. 5 million shares offered in the PIP from current stockholders. It is unlikely that management are willing to offer shares at $12. 50 if the fair market value really is $29 per share, thus weakening the belief in the second scenario. 2) Analysts' expectations and comparable metrics. Analysts are generally very positive in regards to the Craft Brewing Segment, expecting continued growth in 1995.A conservative market share estimate of 5% of the total domestic beer market by 2000 compared to only 1. 4% in 1994. In addition, both Pet?s Brewing Company and Redbook Ale Brewery have recently completed successful Pip's resulting in growing share prices. These factors both build up expectations for Bib's upcoming PIP and are likely to be incorporated in Bib's PIP price. This might mean that BBC will be trading at a slight expectation premium above what the fair value of the company is, thus strengthening the reliability of the first scenario with a stock price of $12. 3. In addition, by comparing PIE ratios of Pet's Br ewing Company, 1 00, and Redbook Ale Brewery, 36, with BBC for the three different scenarios weakens the third scenario because of an implied PIE ratio of 17. 9, which is below both of the two comparable companies. The first scenario giving an implied P/E ratio of 41. 9 and the second scenario showing an implied PIE ratio of 99. 9 are tooth around the two competitors' PIE ratios, strengthening the plausibility of these scenarios when looking at the P/E ratio isolated. 3) We also used industry growth trends to compare the expected sales of BBC in 2000, considering a constant market share, to the 2000 sales forecasted in each scenario. The results allowed us to rule out the third scenario because the sales forecasted in 2000 are less than half of what we would expect with conservative assumptions of the craft industry growth. The other two scenarios were fairly close to the expected revenues in 2000. 4) The second scenario was ruled out when analyzing the growth trends of BBC in recen t years.BBC has already undergone rapid growth and we expect that high growth phase to taper Off sooner rather than later. Ten more years Of high growth is unreasonable and unrealistic. Lastly, the second scenario can be ruled out again when looking at revenues projected for 2006. If the craft brewing industry grew to ten percent of the total domestic beer market by 2006, which is an aggressive assumption, then BBC would have to double its current percentage of market share in the craft industry. We also find that assumption fairly unreasonable due to the competitive nature of the craft industry now and into the future.

Friday, January 10, 2020

School leadership and social justice: Evidence from Ghana and Tanzania

This paper will be a critical analysis of the quality and rightness of the methods of informations aggregation and analysis in the paper produced by Bosu et Al. ( 2011 ) . I will try to supply with logical thinking, an apprehension for the grounds of the methods used in the instance surveies analysed and do usage of literature to supply back uping and opposing positions on the informations aggregation methods every bit good as its analysis. The context of the paper is set in the African states of Ghana and Tanzania, both considered 'emerging and developing economic systems ‘ harmonizing to the International Monetary Fund ( IMF, 2010, p. 152 ) . Three instance surveies are scrutinised, each with the subject of educational leading with undertones of societal justness nevertheless it is non clear what the aims of the research workers are, which is critical in a instance survey due to their being â€Å" wide in nature † ( Best, 2010a, p. 1 ) . Each was an explanatory instance survey, look intoing the consequences of determinations made by school leaders based upon informations collected utilizing an etic attack. In each instance survey there is a reappraisal of an action research run, where the facilitator was the caput instructor of a school. Two of the caput instructors, both from Ghana, attended an action research workshop where they were introduced to research techniques, there is no reference of the history of the Tanzanian caput instructor, or if they had received similar preparation. There is no lucidity of the research workers focus, be it the difference that go toing the workshop makes to the effectivity of action research, the difference caused by lodgers or merely the end point of changing methods of action research. At this occasion I shall try to reexamine the informations aggregation methods of each single instance survey, reasoning by reexamining the informations aggregation by the research workers, of the paper as a whole. Case Study: School A – Gold coast This instance survey had the focal point of trying to cut down adolescent gestations of members of the school in inquiry. To accomplish this, the caput teacher attempted to derive information from the community. There is clear grounds of the usage of interview techniques, notably the caput teacher keeping a ‘discussion ‘ with the PTA which was a focus-group interview. A focal point group interview does look allow in this instance as they are designed to â€Å" explicate and understand, the significances, feelings, beliefs and attitudes that influence the behavior of persons who are assumed to portion a common civilization, job or issue † ( Best, 2010b, p. 23 ) which in this instance seems to be pertinent despite a deficiency of information as to who is invited to the PTA and if they do hold a cognition of the country to be discussed. Maxwell ( 1997 ) explains the importance of purposive trying – of which this is grounds – saying â€Å" peculiar scene s, individuals, or events are intentionally selected for the of import information they can supply that can non be gotten every bit good from other picks † ( p. 87 ) . There is no clear indicant of the construction, although utilizing the word treatment, one could determine that the signifier of an in-depth interview was taken where the caput instructor had compiled a list of the issues to be covered and the interview construction was of a guided conversation. The proclamation of progressive betterment in footings of Numberss of gestations, and in reading accomplishments by the caput instructor was followed by a announcement that the intercession was a success. There is besides an indirect suggestion by the research workers that all communities and schools can work collaboratively facilitated by the caput instructor to turn to societal justness jobs. This is clearly grounds of a authoritative characteristic of the literature and observations of school betterment, as evidenced by Coe ( 2009, p. 368 ) , with instructors frequently declaring: ‘My school was neglecting in A, B, C ways. We did X, Y, Z. Now the grounds of success is P, Q, R ‘ Coe warns against doing summing ups that what is observed in one school may needfully be true for another ( ibid. ) Case Study: School B – Gold coast This instance surveies focus was that of trying to cut down hookies of students who on market yearss absented from school to do money. Harmonizing to the baseline informations collected by the caput instructor, utilizing quantitative informations beginnings such as registries and text books, there was a clear group of male childs identified with low attendings and hapless public presentation, this is an illustration of secondary analysis, which harmonizing to Lewis ( 2003, p. 76 ) is analyzing a set of informations which was originally used for one intent with a different intent. There was a meeting between the caput instructor and a instructor to make up one's mind upon an intercession, there is no reference of the format of this meeting or how the format of the intercession was taken. It was concluded that a focal point group interview with the students followed by single interviews. The quality of this information is arguably high, harmonizing to Best ( 2010b, p. 23 ) the group in terview can potentially supply ‘deeper and richer ‘ informations due to the societal interaction and inquiring of the group members. As with School A this is grounds of purposive sampling. The usage of single interviews besides allows for personal issues to be expressed, which participants may experience uncomfortable with showing in the group environment. This is grounds of usage of method triangulation in that the caput teacher used two different informations aggregation methods on the same group of students in order to increase the cogency of the informations. An chance to roll up farther information arose from the meetings with the parents, enabling the caput instructor to foreground a group of three students every bit high hazard due to parental indifference with respect to their kids ‘s instruction. The intent of these meetings were clearly to educate the parents, nevertheless it seems unintentionally critical information has come from them. Due to the intercession the caput instructor provided informations for attending as being 100 % , with increased degrees in mathematics and English, collected from monthly trials. The quality of these trials could be questioned every bit good as the instruction methods used as there is no information provided. One could oppugn if these kids were taught specifically to execute in trials. The caput instructor took this farther roll uping informations on six of the male childs after graduation to junior high school ; the consequences harmonizing to the research workers were sustained. Case Study: School C – Tanzania The instance of the Tanzanian caput teacher differed from the old instances due to the deficiency of history in relation to their experience in action research. The caput instructor, look intoing the consequence of poorness and hard place environments on the schooling of the students, attempted to reply some inquiries. The caput teacher ‘sought information ‘ from instructors, the format of which is unspecified, nevertheless due to the anterior readying and clear apprehension of the inquiries needed replying it could be suggested that there was an interview, utilizing a structured or semi-structured method. In add-on informations was collected from quantitative beginnings including, day-to-day attending records and trial and scrutiny consequences, every bit good as qualitative beginnings like category assignments and prep. In uniting multiple methods a research worker must be cognizant of equilibrating differing theoretical backgrounds with any ascertained relationships be tween the informations sets ( Brannen, 1992, p. 33 ) . It is the position of Ritchie ( 2003, p. 38 ) that there can be benefit in tackling the two methods provided that the two informations sets can be described exactly. There may be biographical histories within the category assignments or the prep which can supply critical information and â€Å" sensitise a research worker to identify issues † ( Plummer, 2001, p. 130 ) . This is supported by Angell and Freedman ( 1953 ) who explain that this signifier of information has great value at the get downing phases of research instead than the terminal stages in order to derive an apprehension of an probe, which is reflected in the methodological analysis of this instance survey. They emphasise the value of the apprehension that this type of informations can supply with regard to the topic of probe ( p. 305 ) . Harmonizing to Best ( 2010c ) the dependability of this attack is questionable nevertheless utilizing a theoretical generalization the informations can be used to beef up the cogency of a chosen theory or in this instance the signifier of an intercession ( p. 5 ) . It is of import at this phase to underscore the obvious ethical issues in this instance, ab initio due to the nature of the survey, look intoing students personal lives, and secondly due to the aggregation of the biographical information of students. Interviews were held with the students separately, presumptively utilizing the same set of inquiries. If this was the instance it would be grounds of usage of informations triangulation by the research worker, in that the same informations aggregation method was used on legion respondents in an effort to increase cogency of the consequences. All students insisted they enjoyed school and they felt that they could â€Å" freely show their jobs to instructors who were comparatively more caring and considerate than many of their parents and defenders † ( p. 75 ) . One could oppugn nevertheless if the responses were wholly true due to the nature of the relationship between the students and the caput instructor and if the students would supply different responses to a alien. There is grounds to propose that interviewees are more willing to supply true replies to aliens, although this statement relates specifically to online scenes instead than in face to confront interviews ( Paine et al. , 2007, p. 533 ; Nguyen and Alexander, 1996, p. 104 ; Wellman and Gulia, 1999, p. 172 & A ; 178 ) . Harrison ( 2008, p. forty ) highlights the importance of the ‘subjective ‘ nature of informations aggregation every bit good as how the relationship between the research worker and participant may ‘impinge ‘ on its cogency. An intercession similar to that in School A was held, with fluctuating consequences, with students neglecting to go to and execute good in monthly trials. There is a clear contrast from the consequences of the old instance surveies, nevertheless due to the nature of the description of the instance surveies it is ill-defined what the cause of assortment in consequences is. The research workers attempt to salve some sense of achievement by underscoring the sense of authorization of the caput instructor, where due to the fortunes, it would be probably that many would experience helpless. Provided is no grounds of the authorization of the caput instructor after the completion of the instance survey, every bit good as a deficiency of grounds for the innuendo that the fortunes would most likely generate a sense of weakness, taking to inquiries of the quality of informations analysis displayed in this instance. In the chief the informations analysed was qualitative, which as Harrison ( 2008 ) notes, has a different attack to analyzing quantitative informations, although there are attacks which aim to accomplish a comparable ‘routinization ‘ ( that is a modus operandi of analysis ) ( p. 51 ) . Chiefly there is the method of analyzing the construction of the text and based on Glaser and Strauss ‘ ( 1967 ) propositions, the designation of commonalties and relevant theory ( p. 105-106 ) . Evidence of usage of this methodological analysis is present with the research workers placing typical instances in each of the instance surveies, doing comparings with literature and adverting the ascertained differences between the Westernised literature and African world. Second there is the method of nonsubjective hermeneutics ( that is the survey of reading theory ) developed by Oevermann et Al. ( 1979, in Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . It involves the reading of the motivations behind an action, with research workers adhering to two rules ( Soeffner, 1997, p. xiv ; Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . The research worker should bring forth a extremely extended reading, supplying all points of position that the information may stand for nevertheless improbable, and look into the motive behind an action extensively before supplying any sentiment about the information. There is grounds that both of these rules have been neglected to some grade by the research workers ; there is a mostly unbalanced penchant towards the positives that action research has provided in these instances despite its clear failure in the survey of School C of which there is small mentioned. There is besides grounds of the informations being used to suit the statement, with a clear anterior co gnition of practise in Ghana that relates to the research carried out. Decisions Although the fact-finding attack of the research workers is by usage of instance surveies, it is besides biographical in nature as there is a clear narration produced, reflecting upon the experiences of the caput instructors. All three caput instructors participate in action research that affects them straight, harmonizing to Erben ( 1993, p. 15 ) this is good pattern for a biographical research worker ; supported by Mills ‘ statement, as explained by Best ( 2010c, p. 7 ) that frequently ‘personal jobs are public issues. ‘ It is clear that the research workers feel they have obtained critical informations from the instance surveies that strengthens their stance on action research as a method of school betterment ( p. 75-76 ) . There is clear grounds of varied interview methods including single and focus-group interviews with varying construction, with more than one method used in the instances. One could propose that the rules of method triangulation could besides use for analyzing the usage of different interview attacks. Although there is fluctuation in the method of informations aggregation, the literature suggests that there are informations aggregation methods that were non utilised in this paper, such as questionnaires, ocular analysis ( exposure, picture, being present ) , on-line interviews or usage of informations analysis package to explain qualitative informations. It could be suggested that a more complete, higher quality of informations could hold been accumulated had there been more fluctuation in the techniques used by the caput instructors in the instance surveies, inquiries can so be raised about the quality of the action research workshop. Bearing in head the context of the instance surveies, it is apprehensible that in developing states, there may non be every bit much entree to computing machines and hence electronic mail, and that people may non hold every bit much clip to pass on informations aggregation because of a demand to be at work to do money. The information that was collected nevertheless was utile to each caput teacher, evidenced by a considered attack to each intercession warranting the information as appropriate for each instance. The decisions drawn by the research workers focus on the positives that action research offers, and the chances it offers, in these instances to the caput instructors, schools and communities ( p. 75-76 ) . The writers nevertheless are involved in the administration at the caput of the undertaking which has hereafter purposes to supply service in developing states ( p. 69-70 ) . The quality of the analysis is besides questionable, Harrison ( 2008 ) high spots two attacks to analyzing qualitative informations, and the research workers have merely displayed grounds of the usage of one of these. Although the intent of the probe clearly has value, covering with issues of societal justness, one could presume that the writers have non taken a entirely humanistic attack. Due to their engagement and the wholly affirmatory nature of the decisions drawn, it is right to oppugn the objectiveness of the research workers as there may be an component of politically oriented rating evident ( Best, 2 010d, p. 1-2 ) .

Thursday, January 2, 2020

The Arrival - Shaun Tan - 1952 Words

The Arrival - Shaun Tan Where the text came from The Arrival is a migrant story told as a series of wordless images, it was illustrated by Shaun Tan in 2006. Purpose of text The fact that Shaun Tan grew up in Perth, he said was one of the main reasons for making so many novels based on the concept of belonging, he describe Perth as being one of the most isolated cities in the world, sandwiched between a vast desert and a vaster ocean, and they lived in a â€Å"freshly minted northern suburb that was devoid of any clear cultural identity or history†. Also, being half-Chinese, Tan was subject to racism and being consistently asked ‘where are you from’, he had a sense of separateness, and an unclear notion of identity and not understanding what†¦show more content†¦By having words the reader’s imagination is forced to be limited and they interpret the image on the surface rather than letting the image have more conceptual space around it. Also, by not using words, Tan demonstrates the confusion an immigrant might feel upon arrival in a new country where the language is unknown. Obviously, this means the reader will not be able to read what the maps, newspapers and street signs actually say, so we too are forced into this world of the unknown, as the immigrant is. Facial expressions and body language – is a key part, especially in a wordless novel, in interpreting the scenario depicted in the story. On arrival of the male protagonist to the ‘new world’, the physical effects of dislocation and confusion are written on his face, which is juxtaposed to the mechanical and faceless actions of the immigration officials. Images show some of the ways characters can represent feelings of alienation, in these scene, the centre top frame shows the confusion as he tries to make sense of unfamiliar territory and language. His face and body position him as outside the circle of belonging. Structure – the narrative is driven by storyboarding and montage and is backed into reflective mode through large scale landscapes scenes. For example the opening pages depict items that relate to the emotionally heart-breaking scene where husband and wife prepare for his departure. Later theShow MoreRelatedThe Arrival By Shaun Tan1286 Words   |  6 PagesAnticipation, heartache, and mystery are only a few of the abundant emotions immigrants feel on their journey to the United States. Notably, in Shaun Tan’s graphic novel, The Arrival, the main character experiences the same series of emotions on his immigration journey seeking safe haven. In fact, through the three-week introduction to a new adventure and literature, I was able to tune into the same feelings and genuinely understand the dismal journey of the immigrant archetype. Furthermore, thisRead MoreAnalysis Of Shaun Tan s The Arrival1569 Words   |  7 Pagessaid that although we have made our own choices, our companions steer us to either achieve or hinder such goals from happening. In popular culture, our relationships can encourage the chances of growth and success. This is directly proven in Shaun Tan’s The Arrival, where the unnamed protagonist initially struggles to adapt to the culture of his new city. Later on in the book, he comes across other people who have came from different backgrounds and hears about their stories about how they arrived toRead MoreLiterature is a textually transmitted disease, normally contracted in childhood‚Äà ¹ Word and Image in Shaun Tans The Arrival3817 Words   |  16 PagesLiterature is a textually transmitted disease, normally contracted in childhood† Word and Image in Shaun Tans The Arrival As a reader we are evidently drawn firstly to a book who’s title and/or image on the cover excites us. Adult Fiction is evidently presented in the form of a novel but Shaun Tan breaks away from traditional conventions of a novel format, producing texts that inhabit the shape of a picture book, whether including or excluding written language. ThisRead MoreEssay The Arrival981 Words   |  4 PagesEnglish Speech The Arrival by Shaun Tan is a graphic novel which follows the story of a man who embarks on the journey of migration. The notions of belonging that are highlighted in the text are belonging to a place and belonging to a family. The composer establishes these through the masterful employment of various visual techniques. One of the foremost themes of the novel is the concept of belonging to a place, in particular the connection to a homeland. A disturbance in the main environmentRead MoreShaun Tan984 Words   |  4 PagesShaun Tan Shaun Tan, born in 1974, is an award winning illustrator and author of many well-known children’s books. Tan was born and raised in Fremantle, Western Australia, where as a boy, spent his time writing and illustrating poems and stories. Tan was known at his primary school as very talented artist. Through out high school, Tan continued his passion for illustrating, where he was enrolled in a special art program for gifted students. However, Tan eventually took an academic path into universityRead MoreLiterary Criticism : The Unassuming And Humble Picture Essay1732 Words   |  7 Pagesbook, this essay explores the exotic affordances of children’s literature, emphasising its power to enhance the child’s intellectual and emotional development. With explicit reference to Rob Gonsalves and Sarah L. Thomson’s Imagine a Day and Shaun Tan’s The Arrival, this essay aims also to prove the sacred role fantasy plays in providing a means for children to under stand the world around them. Intellectual development is defined as ‘the measure of how individuals learn to think and reason for themselvesRead MoreThe Immigrants Experience Through The Graphic Novel The Arrival 1305 Words   |  6 Pages Shaun Tan depicts the immigrant experience through the graphic novel, The Arrival. Tan sets many emotions and thoughts in motion, without using any words. Tan depicts the many challenges immigrants face when venturing to a foreign land for the first time. This graphic novel depict the immigrant experience in a very effective way. Tan does so by using many different methods to demonstrate this experience, the strange language, strange surrounds, and unfamiliar people, are some of the most prominentRead MoreThe Red Tree1717 Words   |  7 PagesThe Red Tree is another outstanding book by Australian illustrator and author Shaun Tan. The book published by Hachette Australia in 2001 leads us on one girl’s journey through a dark and confusing path of depression. Although each page contains a few words it is the images that capture the reader’s attention with new objects, images and meanings discovered each time the book is reopened. Shaun Tan has had an impressive illustrative career spanning over fifteen years. He has won various awardsRead MoreBelonging Essay1446 Words   |  6 Pagesplace in belonging as a student in the poem ‘St Patrick’s College.’ Additionally, this poem also explores his physical existence within the school; however there are clear divisions in him not belonging. The related texts reviewed include ‘The Arrival’ (Shaun Tan, 2006) graphic novel which illustrates a visual story of an immigrant who leaves home to create a better life for his family and the play ‘Away’ (Michael Gow, 1993). Thus it may be ascertained, that belonging defines who we are. In the poemRead MoreBelonging Essay2272 Words   |  10 Pages    multifaceted   nature   of   this   innate   desire.   Whilst   Mark   Osborne’s   claymation   More    (1998)   depicts   belonging   to   society   as   a   hindrance   to   the   development   of   an   identity,    Shaun   Tan’s   picture   book   The   Lost   Thing   reinforces   society’s   ability   to   function   as   a    barrier   which   paradoxically   enriches   one’s   personal   sense   of   belonging.       Within   Ã¢â‚¬ËœFeliks   Skrzynecki’