Thursday, March 26, 2020

On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review Essay Example

On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review Paper Essay on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Lets cut ones way in the all around! Perhaps these words can put the theme of the work, because they frequently uttered by one of the main characters and reflects the attitude of the heroes to the world around them. The plot is not intricate. A couple of guys Sal Paradise (on behalf of the narrator) and Dean Moriarty throughout the book romp from one end of America to the other and back again. Throughout all their journeys surround incredible adventures and mishaps, which reflect the inner world of the characters and their attitude to life. The work is certainly worth considering. Reading it, however, enter into the role of the main characters. Rather to my main character was Dean Moriarty and it was his actions, speech, emotions caused some trepidation in his heart. There is a desire to drop everything and go in any direction, nablyadaya everything around, talking to everyone, forget about any framework in which we are driving social norms and morals, breathing life! Move, move, move! We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on On the Road. Maggie Cassidy. The essay Review specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The truth is after some time come to mind thoughts about the reverse side of the issue. Such a life is meaningless in terms of the benefit. Benefits that can bring into our world. And in the end, this life can get bored. The story shows the life of the characters in the context of several years. Dean manages to marry, divorce, re-marriage, to have children. One thing remains unchanged. Feeling in his soul a certain loneliness, loneliness that despite the everyday, every minute chat with people, no one can fill And he again embarks on a road

Friday, March 6, 2020

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), had beginnings based in both scientific pursuit and the military. Lets start from the first days and see how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) started. After the Second World War, the Defense Department launched serious research push into the fields of rocketry and upper atmosphere sciences to ensure American leadership in technology. As part of this push, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved a plan to orbit a scientific satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) for the period from July 1 1957 to December 31 1958, a cooperative effort to collect scientific data about the Earth. Quickly, the Soviet Union jumped in, announcing plans to orbit its own satellites. The Naval Research Laboratorys Vanguard project was selected on September 9 1955 to support the IGY effort, but while it enjoyed exceptional publicity throughout the second half of 1955, and all of 1956, the technological requirements in the program were too big and funding levels too small to ensure success. The launch of Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957 pushed the U.S. satellite program in crisis mode. Playing technological catch-up, the United States launched its first Earth satellite on January 31, 1958, when Explorer 1 documented the existence of radiation zones encircling the Earth. Next page NASA History - The Formation of NASA Page 1, 2, 3 One law for the investigation of the problems of flight within and outside the Earths atmosphere, and for other purposes. With this simple preamble, Congress and the President of the United States created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on October 1, 1958, a direct result of the Sputnik crisis. The fledgling National Aeronautics and Space Administration body absorbed the former National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics intact: its 8000 employees, an annual budget of $ 100 million, three major research labs - Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory - and two small test facilities. Soon after, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) joined other organizations, including the space science group from the Naval Research Laboratory in Maryland, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology for the Army, and Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alab ama, the laboratory where Wernher von Brauns team of engineers were engaged in the development of large rockets. As it grew, the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), established in other centers, and today has ten located around the country. Early in its history, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was already seeking to put a human in space. Once again, the Soviet Union the U.S. beat to the punch when Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space on April 12, 1961. However, the gap was closing as on May 5, 1961, Alan B. Shepard Jr. became the first American to fly into space, when he rode his Mercury capsule on a 15-minute suborbital mission. Project Mercury was the first high-profile program of NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which had as its goal placing humans in space. The following year, on February 20, John H. Glenn Jr. became the first U.S. astronaut to orbit the Earth. Following in the footsteps of Project Mercury, Gemini continued NASAs human spaceflight program to and expanded its capabilities with spacecraft built for two astronauts. Geminis 10 flights also provided NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists and engineers with more data on weightlessness,perfected reentry and splashdown procedures, and demonstrated rendezvous and docking in space. One of the highlights of the program took place during the Gemini 4 on June 3, 1965, when Edward H. White, Jr. became the first U.S. astronaut to perform a spacewalk. Next page NASA History - NASA Crowning Achievement Page 1, 2, 3 The crowning achievement of NASAs early years was Project Apollo. When President John F. Kennedy announced I believe this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth, NASA was committed to putting a man on the moon. The Apollo moon project was a massive effort that required significant expenditures, costing $25.4 billion, 11 years, and 3 lives to accomplish. On July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong made his now famous remarks, Thats one small step for (a) man, one giant leap for mankind as he stepped onto the lunar surface during the Apollo 11 mission. After taking soil samples, photographs, and doing other tasks on the moon, Armstrong and Aldrin rendezvoused with their colleague Michael Collins in lunar orbit for a safe journey back to Earth. There were five more successful lunar landing of Apollo missions, but only a failed one rivaled the first for excitement. All totaled, 12 astronauts walked on the Moon during the Apollo years.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

An e-Business analysis of BarnesandNoble.com Research Paper

An e-Business analysis of BarnesandNoble.com - Research Paper Example Barnes & Noble history can be traced to its acquisition in the early 1960s by Leonard Riggio; this is the period when he began his bookselling profession while in New York University. By 1970, the company was succeeding and it included 6 other college bookstores; it acquired trade name Barnes & Noble and the flagship bookstore in Manhattan. Between 1970s and 1980s the company made several significant moves. In 1974, it became the first bookseller in U.S. to put an advert in television; the â€Å"Of Course! Of Course!† advert. In 1975, Barnes & Noble made a bold move and became the first bookseller by offering discount books in the United States; it offered New York Times bestsellers at a discount of 40 percent off the publishers’ list prices (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company has been offering book services for close to 25 years, it began with the mail order catalogue in 1970. The company tested selling the books online in the late 1980s through Trintex, an early generation venue. Trintex was a joint venture between IBM & Sears. The company sold its books on the CompuServe in the mid-1990s and later it opened a full-fledged a book superstore on the America Online in 1997. Barnes & Noble.com website (www.barnesandnoble.com) was launched in May 1997. Presently, the company’s website is the largest store and it enables the customers to order a book regardless of the time and place. The consumers have access to millions of out-of-print and used book titles, music DVDs and CDs through Barnes & Noble.com (Barnes & Noble, Inc., 2011). The company’s publishing has been expanded through the purchases of SparkNotes.com and Sterling Publishing in 2001 and 2003 respectively. In 2009, the company acquired Fictionwise, a company leading in eBook in the marketplace. The company has its headquarters in New Jersey; it was founded in 2000 by Scott and Steve Pendergrast. In July 2009, Barnes and Noble introduced the world’s

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Global Corporate Governance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Global Corporate Governance - Essay Example e legislature develops a platform that regulates the company’s decisions and interactions with other partners to safeguard all stakeholders’ interests. The executive arm of government also formulates policies and enforces all legal provisions while the judiciary interprets laws and policies to compliance. Implementation of established laws also stipulates liabilities and remedies in cases of infringed rights (Daft and Marcic 60-63). The company particularly experienced government intervention in its case against Samsung in which Samsung was accused of infringing Apple’s intellectual property right. In the case, government intervention protected the company’s interest in its innovation and therefore promoted its revenues from the protected products. The case also identifies the effects of government regulations in controlling the company’s actions towards its stakeholders because any illegal act is punishable by law (Svensson 1). Competition is another external environmental factor that affects the company and emanates from organizations that supplies products with similar utility. It affects Apple’s market control as well as profit levels because of relatively reduced sales volumes and scarcity of resources (Daft and Marcic 64). Competition from other companies such as Samsung that produces and sells products with similar technological applications offers consumers alternatives that lead to shared market. Consequently, apple has to develop strategies for acquiring and retaining customers, whether through price reduction, improved quality, or product diversification. The stiff competition has also made the company a victim of counterfeit products as its competitors have been accused and convicted of unlawfully copping its technology, an issue that grants the competitors a market advantage against Apple (Svensson 1). Human resource management is a sensitive issue that drives an organization’s productivity, and Apple has been keen on its personnel

Monday, January 27, 2020

An Analysis Of Romantic Opera Drama Essay

An Analysis Of Romantic Opera Drama Essay The Romantic Era was a period in music in which there was much change during the 1850s to the 1920s in the theory and compositional practice of music. The composers wrote their pieces with more artistic freedom, experimentation, and creativity than the artists of the classical era and this caused the melody to become the more dominant feature in the songs composed. Some popular composers that originated out of this era are: Robert Schumann, Franz Schubert, Frà ©dà ©ric Chopin, and Richard Wagner. For inspiration, many Romantic composers turned to visual arts, poetry, drama and literature, and to nature itself. These influences led composers to express emotion in their music. These changes in the sound of the music came in the form of the increased use of dissonance and the extended use of chromatics. Although Romantic era music contained classical era roots, the instruments used in the Romantic era were changing and brass and woodwind instruments were being improved in the quality of sound, as well as in how they were played. Some Romantic era composers used their compositions to express nationalism by the way of incorporating elements unique to their native cultures, such as folk songs, dances, and legendary histories. Mikhail Glinka is an example of a composer who wrote operas specifically on Russian subjects. Many great operas derived from the Romantic era including Gaetano Donizettis Lucia di Lammermoor, as well as Gioachino Rossinis The Barber of Seville. Opera was very dominant in Italy where the operas differed from the operas of the classical era because the form of the pieces were being changed by having the tenors given the heroic lead in operas and by giving the chorus a more important lead than before. Gioachino Rossini was the first composer to initiate an opera in the Romantic era, which started in the early 19th century. His first piece, La Cambiale di Matrimonio, included scenes where the characters expressed emotion through the lyrics of their songs. This was a comedic opera that was the first of its kind which was written in 1810. Many great composers followed Rossini including Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Giuseppe Verdi. These composers continued to change the way operas were being written as well as preformed. These changes were evident in Verdis first success ful opera, Nabucco, which the general public found interesting because of its great choruses. Verdi also continued to express nationalism in his operas, Va, pensiero, which was interpreted as giving meaning to the struggle for Italian independence and Verdi was expressing his hope to unify Italy. By the end of the Romantic era, opera had become a combination of many art forms including the theatre, dance and orchestra oriented music. Although opera was predominant in Italy, many other European composers were contributing to the changes in the music of their generation, including German composer Richard Wagner. Richard Wagner was born on May 22, 1813 in Leipzig, Germany where he had a difficult childhood. Wagners father died of typhus six months after Richards birth which led his mother Johanna Rosine Wagner, to begin living with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer, who had been a friend of Richards father up until his death. Richards mother then proceeded to marry Ludwig Geyer and they moved the family to Dresden. It is here where Wagner started his musical learning. Richard first took interest in his step fathers love for the theatre and performance arts and he played an angel in a play at a local theatre. When he was seven, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzels school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher. A year later his stepfather died which led the ei ght year old Wagner to attend the Kreuz Grammar School in Dresden. Although Richard was largely a self taught musician he persuaded his family to allow him to take music lessons. From 1828-1831 Wagner completed his first lessons in composition with Christian Gottlieb Mà ¼ller and by the time he was fifteen he had already written his first play. Wagners focus on drama is one of the reasons his operas really shined as being different than operas of the classical era. He enrolled at the University of Leipzig in 1831 where Wagner further took composition lessons from Christian Theodor Weinlig who refused to let Richard pay for the lessons he was giving him. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagners talents that he arranged for one of Wagners piano works to be published. Wagner continued his studies in music and he completed his first opera when he was twenty years old called Die Feen. This opera would not be produced until half a century later when it was premiered in Munich shortly after his death in 1883. Around the time he wrote his first opera, Wagner married the actress Minna Planer, who he moved to Riga with where he became the music director of the local opera house. His relationship with his wife was a troubled one in that she left him once for another man, but came back to him before they moved to Paris due to fleeing from tremendous debt. In 1862 he returned to Germany, where he moved in with Ludwig II. After the success of his opera, Tristan und Isolde, he decided to do more traveling around Europe where he created such classics as Siegfried and Gà ¶tterdà ¤mmerung. Towards the end of his life Wagner decided to settle in Italy where wrote his final opera, Parsifal. Parsifal was first preformed at the Bayreuth festival which occurred at the opera house in which Wagner himself funded. After the second Bayreuth festival the Wagners decided to take a trip to Venice in the winter of 1883. It is here where Richard Wagner passed away due to a heart attack. In his long musical career Wagner created thirteen operas including the most notable Rienzi, Der fliegende Hollà ¤nde, Tristan und Isolde, and Der Ring des Nibelungen. It was clear that Wagner was changing the way operas were being preformed, and he continued to push the music further into the Romantic era by viewing operas as total art works.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Boston Beer HBS Case

Disadvantages of an PIP The company will face underwriting costs associated with the PIP. A failed PIP could be costly both in financial assets and in firm reputation. Complying with regulatory reporting standards will create additional costs that are not present in a private company. Incorporating the company may have negative tax implications for the current owners. Current shareholders who do not exit during the PIP will face severe dilution. Management control will decrease because of fiduciary duties to shareholders. This could conflict with the company's product quality processes and result in a shift toward a short-term earnings focus.Conclusion Although their contract brewing model reduces expected capital expenditures, their labor and marketing intensive sales strategy will require substantial spending to expand into new markets. To meet projected growth, external funds will be needed. Raising these funds entirely from debt would create an unacceptable level of debt for a st ill growing company; thus equity funding is the preferred option. The company has reached a maturity point where equity can more easily and cheaply raised in public capital markets rather than through venture or private equity firms.Additionally, publicity room the PIP will help with brand recognition in new markets. Given the recent success of competitor Ipso and Boston Beer's profit margin and growth potential, the risk of a failed PIP is minimal, and most current shareholders intend to sell shares in the PIP reducing dilution concerns. Boston Beer should proceed with the PIP. Question 3-5 (Exhibit 3)– – 1995 Pro Formal Net Sales: All pro formal sales rely upon the assumption that net sales as of September 30, 1 995 represent 75% of expected year-end revenue.Because the firm's PIP will most likely have a more positive impact on Q sales than his estimate projects, if anything, the prices generated by our models are underestimated, not overestimated. Cost of Debt: BBC explains in its prospectus intent to extinguish outstanding debt carrying interest rates upwards of 1 1 . 5%. Based upon the firm's low target leverage of 5%, low degree of operating leverage, and favorable credit history and financial outlook, the model assumes a cost of debt in line with AAA corporate debt at 7. 2%. This estimate seems reasonable and sensitivity analysis shows a 1% decrease in the forecasted share price requires at least a 2. % increase in the cost of debt. Risk Free Rate: The six-month and 30-year treasury rates given imply a fairly flat yield curve. Due to the relatively short forecast period and the short-term risk characteristics of this industry, the model uses the six- month rate as the risk free rate in calculating the cost of equity. 995 Net Working Capital Requirement: In order to calculate the change in NC over 1 996, the model assumes sass's year-end NC is composed of the existing September 30, 1 995 balance plus Of fourth quarter net sales due to the f irm's rationalization strategy. CAP: Historical analysis shows an average 3. 3% capital intensity ratio. Based on a likely decrease in efficiency due to rapid expansion, the model forecasts a 3% capital intensity ratio–this includes restricted investments (Exhibit 1).Depreciation: Depreciation was not included in the calculation of free cash flows because net CAP was used. 1995 Value of Debt: Boston Beer's debt is private, so the market value will be very similar to, if not exactly the same as, its book value. – –Question The underwriting prospectus for the PIP suggests a share price of $12. 50 per hare, which is the starting point for analyzing the different scenarios. In order to determine the scenario that was most realistic, we attempted to rule out the ones that were not and a summary of our analysis is found in Exhibit 4. 1) First we analyzed the information asymmetry in the PIP. The offering presents information about almost 1. 5 million shares offered in the PIP from current stockholders. It is unlikely that management are willing to offer shares at $12. 50 if the fair market value really is $29 per share, thus weakening the belief in the second scenario. 2) Analysts' expectations and comparable metrics. Analysts are generally very positive in regards to the Craft Brewing Segment, expecting continued growth in 1995.A conservative market share estimate of 5% of the total domestic beer market by 2000 compared to only 1. 4% in 1994. In addition, both Pet?s Brewing Company and Redbook Ale Brewery have recently completed successful Pip's resulting in growing share prices. These factors both build up expectations for Bib's upcoming PIP and are likely to be incorporated in Bib's PIP price. This might mean that BBC will be trading at a slight expectation premium above what the fair value of the company is, thus strengthening the reliability of the first scenario with a stock price of $12. 3. In addition, by comparing PIE ratios of Pet's Br ewing Company, 1 00, and Redbook Ale Brewery, 36, with BBC for the three different scenarios weakens the third scenario because of an implied PIE ratio of 17. 9, which is below both of the two comparable companies. The first scenario giving an implied P/E ratio of 41. 9 and the second scenario showing an implied PIE ratio of 99. 9 are tooth around the two competitors' PIE ratios, strengthening the plausibility of these scenarios when looking at the P/E ratio isolated. 3) We also used industry growth trends to compare the expected sales of BBC in 2000, considering a constant market share, to the 2000 sales forecasted in each scenario. The results allowed us to rule out the third scenario because the sales forecasted in 2000 are less than half of what we would expect with conservative assumptions of the craft industry growth. The other two scenarios were fairly close to the expected revenues in 2000. 4) The second scenario was ruled out when analyzing the growth trends of BBC in recen t years.BBC has already undergone rapid growth and we expect that high growth phase to taper Off sooner rather than later. Ten more years Of high growth is unreasonable and unrealistic. Lastly, the second scenario can be ruled out again when looking at revenues projected for 2006. If the craft brewing industry grew to ten percent of the total domestic beer market by 2006, which is an aggressive assumption, then BBC would have to double its current percentage of market share in the craft industry. We also find that assumption fairly unreasonable due to the competitive nature of the craft industry now and into the future.

Friday, January 10, 2020

School leadership and social justice: Evidence from Ghana and Tanzania

This paper will be a critical analysis of the quality and rightness of the methods of informations aggregation and analysis in the paper produced by Bosu et Al. ( 2011 ) . I will try to supply with logical thinking, an apprehension for the grounds of the methods used in the instance surveies analysed and do usage of literature to supply back uping and opposing positions on the informations aggregation methods every bit good as its analysis. The context of the paper is set in the African states of Ghana and Tanzania, both considered 'emerging and developing economic systems ‘ harmonizing to the International Monetary Fund ( IMF, 2010, p. 152 ) . Three instance surveies are scrutinised, each with the subject of educational leading with undertones of societal justness nevertheless it is non clear what the aims of the research workers are, which is critical in a instance survey due to their being â€Å" wide in nature † ( Best, 2010a, p. 1 ) . Each was an explanatory instance survey, look intoing the consequences of determinations made by school leaders based upon informations collected utilizing an etic attack. In each instance survey there is a reappraisal of an action research run, where the facilitator was the caput instructor of a school. Two of the caput instructors, both from Ghana, attended an action research workshop where they were introduced to research techniques, there is no reference of the history of the Tanzanian caput instructor, or if they had received similar preparation. There is no lucidity of the research workers focus, be it the difference that go toing the workshop makes to the effectivity of action research, the difference caused by lodgers or merely the end point of changing methods of action research. At this occasion I shall try to reexamine the informations aggregation methods of each single instance survey, reasoning by reexamining the informations aggregation by the research workers, of the paper as a whole. Case Study: School A – Gold coast This instance survey had the focal point of trying to cut down adolescent gestations of members of the school in inquiry. To accomplish this, the caput teacher attempted to derive information from the community. There is clear grounds of the usage of interview techniques, notably the caput teacher keeping a ‘discussion ‘ with the PTA which was a focus-group interview. A focal point group interview does look allow in this instance as they are designed to â€Å" explicate and understand, the significances, feelings, beliefs and attitudes that influence the behavior of persons who are assumed to portion a common civilization, job or issue † ( Best, 2010b, p. 23 ) which in this instance seems to be pertinent despite a deficiency of information as to who is invited to the PTA and if they do hold a cognition of the country to be discussed. Maxwell ( 1997 ) explains the importance of purposive trying – of which this is grounds – saying â€Å" peculiar scene s, individuals, or events are intentionally selected for the of import information they can supply that can non be gotten every bit good from other picks † ( p. 87 ) . There is no clear indicant of the construction, although utilizing the word treatment, one could determine that the signifier of an in-depth interview was taken where the caput instructor had compiled a list of the issues to be covered and the interview construction was of a guided conversation. The proclamation of progressive betterment in footings of Numberss of gestations, and in reading accomplishments by the caput instructor was followed by a announcement that the intercession was a success. There is besides an indirect suggestion by the research workers that all communities and schools can work collaboratively facilitated by the caput instructor to turn to societal justness jobs. This is clearly grounds of a authoritative characteristic of the literature and observations of school betterment, as evidenced by Coe ( 2009, p. 368 ) , with instructors frequently declaring: ‘My school was neglecting in A, B, C ways. We did X, Y, Z. Now the grounds of success is P, Q, R ‘ Coe warns against doing summing ups that what is observed in one school may needfully be true for another ( ibid. ) Case Study: School B – Gold coast This instance surveies focus was that of trying to cut down hookies of students who on market yearss absented from school to do money. Harmonizing to the baseline informations collected by the caput instructor, utilizing quantitative informations beginnings such as registries and text books, there was a clear group of male childs identified with low attendings and hapless public presentation, this is an illustration of secondary analysis, which harmonizing to Lewis ( 2003, p. 76 ) is analyzing a set of informations which was originally used for one intent with a different intent. There was a meeting between the caput instructor and a instructor to make up one's mind upon an intercession, there is no reference of the format of this meeting or how the format of the intercession was taken. It was concluded that a focal point group interview with the students followed by single interviews. The quality of this information is arguably high, harmonizing to Best ( 2010b, p. 23 ) the group in terview can potentially supply ‘deeper and richer ‘ informations due to the societal interaction and inquiring of the group members. As with School A this is grounds of purposive sampling. The usage of single interviews besides allows for personal issues to be expressed, which participants may experience uncomfortable with showing in the group environment. This is grounds of usage of method triangulation in that the caput teacher used two different informations aggregation methods on the same group of students in order to increase the cogency of the informations. An chance to roll up farther information arose from the meetings with the parents, enabling the caput instructor to foreground a group of three students every bit high hazard due to parental indifference with respect to their kids ‘s instruction. The intent of these meetings were clearly to educate the parents, nevertheless it seems unintentionally critical information has come from them. Due to the intercession the caput instructor provided informations for attending as being 100 % , with increased degrees in mathematics and English, collected from monthly trials. The quality of these trials could be questioned every bit good as the instruction methods used as there is no information provided. One could oppugn if these kids were taught specifically to execute in trials. The caput instructor took this farther roll uping informations on six of the male childs after graduation to junior high school ; the consequences harmonizing to the research workers were sustained. Case Study: School C – Tanzania The instance of the Tanzanian caput teacher differed from the old instances due to the deficiency of history in relation to their experience in action research. The caput instructor, look intoing the consequence of poorness and hard place environments on the schooling of the students, attempted to reply some inquiries. The caput teacher ‘sought information ‘ from instructors, the format of which is unspecified, nevertheless due to the anterior readying and clear apprehension of the inquiries needed replying it could be suggested that there was an interview, utilizing a structured or semi-structured method. In add-on informations was collected from quantitative beginnings including, day-to-day attending records and trial and scrutiny consequences, every bit good as qualitative beginnings like category assignments and prep. In uniting multiple methods a research worker must be cognizant of equilibrating differing theoretical backgrounds with any ascertained relationships be tween the informations sets ( Brannen, 1992, p. 33 ) . It is the position of Ritchie ( 2003, p. 38 ) that there can be benefit in tackling the two methods provided that the two informations sets can be described exactly. There may be biographical histories within the category assignments or the prep which can supply critical information and â€Å" sensitise a research worker to identify issues † ( Plummer, 2001, p. 130 ) . This is supported by Angell and Freedman ( 1953 ) who explain that this signifier of information has great value at the get downing phases of research instead than the terminal stages in order to derive an apprehension of an probe, which is reflected in the methodological analysis of this instance survey. They emphasise the value of the apprehension that this type of informations can supply with regard to the topic of probe ( p. 305 ) . Harmonizing to Best ( 2010c ) the dependability of this attack is questionable nevertheless utilizing a theoretical generalization the informations can be used to beef up the cogency of a chosen theory or in this instance the signifier of an intercession ( p. 5 ) . It is of import at this phase to underscore the obvious ethical issues in this instance, ab initio due to the nature of the survey, look intoing students personal lives, and secondly due to the aggregation of the biographical information of students. Interviews were held with the students separately, presumptively utilizing the same set of inquiries. If this was the instance it would be grounds of usage of informations triangulation by the research worker, in that the same informations aggregation method was used on legion respondents in an effort to increase cogency of the consequences. All students insisted they enjoyed school and they felt that they could â€Å" freely show their jobs to instructors who were comparatively more caring and considerate than many of their parents and defenders † ( p. 75 ) . One could oppugn nevertheless if the responses were wholly true due to the nature of the relationship between the students and the caput instructor and if the students would supply different responses to a alien. There is grounds to propose that interviewees are more willing to supply true replies to aliens, although this statement relates specifically to online scenes instead than in face to confront interviews ( Paine et al. , 2007, p. 533 ; Nguyen and Alexander, 1996, p. 104 ; Wellman and Gulia, 1999, p. 172 & A ; 178 ) . Harrison ( 2008, p. forty ) highlights the importance of the ‘subjective ‘ nature of informations aggregation every bit good as how the relationship between the research worker and participant may ‘impinge ‘ on its cogency. An intercession similar to that in School A was held, with fluctuating consequences, with students neglecting to go to and execute good in monthly trials. There is a clear contrast from the consequences of the old instance surveies, nevertheless due to the nature of the description of the instance surveies it is ill-defined what the cause of assortment in consequences is. The research workers attempt to salve some sense of achievement by underscoring the sense of authorization of the caput instructor, where due to the fortunes, it would be probably that many would experience helpless. Provided is no grounds of the authorization of the caput instructor after the completion of the instance survey, every bit good as a deficiency of grounds for the innuendo that the fortunes would most likely generate a sense of weakness, taking to inquiries of the quality of informations analysis displayed in this instance. In the chief the informations analysed was qualitative, which as Harrison ( 2008 ) notes, has a different attack to analyzing quantitative informations, although there are attacks which aim to accomplish a comparable ‘routinization ‘ ( that is a modus operandi of analysis ) ( p. 51 ) . Chiefly there is the method of analyzing the construction of the text and based on Glaser and Strauss ‘ ( 1967 ) propositions, the designation of commonalties and relevant theory ( p. 105-106 ) . Evidence of usage of this methodological analysis is present with the research workers placing typical instances in each of the instance surveies, doing comparings with literature and adverting the ascertained differences between the Westernised literature and African world. Second there is the method of nonsubjective hermeneutics ( that is the survey of reading theory ) developed by Oevermann et Al. ( 1979, in Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . It involves the reading of the motivations behind an action, with research workers adhering to two rules ( Soeffner, 1997, p. xiv ; Harrison, 2008, p. 51 ) . The research worker should bring forth a extremely extended reading, supplying all points of position that the information may stand for nevertheless improbable, and look into the motive behind an action extensively before supplying any sentiment about the information. There is grounds that both of these rules have been neglected to some grade by the research workers ; there is a mostly unbalanced penchant towards the positives that action research has provided in these instances despite its clear failure in the survey of School C of which there is small mentioned. There is besides grounds of the informations being used to suit the statement, with a clear anterior co gnition of practise in Ghana that relates to the research carried out. Decisions Although the fact-finding attack of the research workers is by usage of instance surveies, it is besides biographical in nature as there is a clear narration produced, reflecting upon the experiences of the caput instructors. All three caput instructors participate in action research that affects them straight, harmonizing to Erben ( 1993, p. 15 ) this is good pattern for a biographical research worker ; supported by Mills ‘ statement, as explained by Best ( 2010c, p. 7 ) that frequently ‘personal jobs are public issues. ‘ It is clear that the research workers feel they have obtained critical informations from the instance surveies that strengthens their stance on action research as a method of school betterment ( p. 75-76 ) . There is clear grounds of varied interview methods including single and focus-group interviews with varying construction, with more than one method used in the instances. One could propose that the rules of method triangulation could besides use for analyzing the usage of different interview attacks. Although there is fluctuation in the method of informations aggregation, the literature suggests that there are informations aggregation methods that were non utilised in this paper, such as questionnaires, ocular analysis ( exposure, picture, being present ) , on-line interviews or usage of informations analysis package to explain qualitative informations. It could be suggested that a more complete, higher quality of informations could hold been accumulated had there been more fluctuation in the techniques used by the caput instructors in the instance surveies, inquiries can so be raised about the quality of the action research workshop. Bearing in head the context of the instance surveies, it is apprehensible that in developing states, there may non be every bit much entree to computing machines and hence electronic mail, and that people may non hold every bit much clip to pass on informations aggregation because of a demand to be at work to do money. The information that was collected nevertheless was utile to each caput teacher, evidenced by a considered attack to each intercession warranting the information as appropriate for each instance. The decisions drawn by the research workers focus on the positives that action research offers, and the chances it offers, in these instances to the caput instructors, schools and communities ( p. 75-76 ) . The writers nevertheless are involved in the administration at the caput of the undertaking which has hereafter purposes to supply service in developing states ( p. 69-70 ) . The quality of the analysis is besides questionable, Harrison ( 2008 ) high spots two attacks to analyzing qualitative informations, and the research workers have merely displayed grounds of the usage of one of these. Although the intent of the probe clearly has value, covering with issues of societal justness, one could presume that the writers have non taken a entirely humanistic attack. Due to their engagement and the wholly affirmatory nature of the decisions drawn, it is right to oppugn the objectiveness of the research workers as there may be an component of politically oriented rating evident ( Best, 2 010d, p. 1-2 ) .